CBD-rich Cannabis For Treatment of Intractable Epilepsy

Epilepsy affects approximately 2.2 million people in the United States, with more being diagnosed each year. Intractable seizures that cannot be controlled with conventional treatments represent a small but significant portion of patients. At the moment an estimated 6 in 100,000 seizure patients will not respond to current treatments.

One approach that is currently being researched is CBD, or cannabidiol oil. This substance has been produced in certain strains of medical marijuana and currently studies are being undertaken to test its effectiveness in limiting or eliminating seizures in patients, particularly children. Cannabidiol oil testing has proven controversial, with some states questioning its effectiveness, but early research has proved promising. In the 213 children participating in one American study in 2015, an average of 54 percent decrease of symptoms were reported. The treatment is not without its side effects–diarrhea, fatigue, and decreased appetite were the most reported–but a decrease in symptoms among patients who had previously not received relief from traditional treatments is promising.

In both animal and human models, cannabidiol has proven effective in treating seizures, though the exact mechanism by which it does so is currently unknown. Cannabidiol is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier–the filter that ensures that most foreign substances cannot affect the brain. However, current research in seizures of the hippocampus indicate that it may interfere with potassium ion release. Other previous hypotheses include cannabidiol binding to neuron sites, particularly CB1 receptors. Binding off of this receptor may lessen the electrical shocks in the brain that are indicative of seizure activity, though this requires further study.

Cannabidiol oil compliance testing ensures that what is used for treatment is a high CBD, low THC product. Since THC is the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis and CBD is non-psychoactive, the major concern of anti-drug lawmakers would seem to be neutralized. However, this has not proved to be the case. Cannabis is still classified as a Schedule 1 drug by the United States federal government, and research into medical marijuana is therefore restricted. Organizations like the Epilepsy Foundation and others like them advocate for the restriction to be lifted, both for the effective treatment of intractable seizures and for regulated cannabidiol oil compliance testing to ensure that patients are receiving safe and quality treatment.

For a condition as disruptive and exhausting as intractable epilepsy, patients and their caretakers alike would benefit from examining all possible treatments. Young children especially should be given the opportunity to live life to the fullest and not worry about when their next seizure will occur. Cannabidiol oil testing and further testing in both human and animal models may give both politicians and patients the answers that they need–and for patients, the relief that they seek.

Window Replacement Tulsa – Tips For Finding The very best Specialist

If you’re seeking window replacement Tulsa is a fantastic location to locate a quality professional. Nevertheless, locating the ideal prospect for the task isn’t constantly easy – so in this advice, we’re going to share numerous tips that will help you find the best window substitute service to suit your needs.

Idea 1 – Do your research

When there are a variety of firms all contending for your company, it can be difficult to recognize which business to choose. Typically, the best option is to do your due diligence and investigate the business you’re preferring. Some things to seek will include customer testimonials and encounter. Just what’s more, it’s likewise worth calling the business straight and also asking a couple of concerns – due to the fact that this is an excellent means to check their overall professionalism.

Suggestion 2 – Check their licensing

In particular states, it is essential for a home window substitute service provider to be certified and signed up. This provides you fantastic comfort that the specialist will complete the task to the suitable specification, so it’s well worth checking this info ahead of time.

Nonetheless, bear in mind that not all states require the licensing – however there’s no damage in monitoring – specifically when the permit number will certainly often match a firm document, which enables you to examine whether there have actually been any type of problems concerning the firm in the past.

In general, when you’re looking for window replacement Tulsa is a location that won’t let you down. With an array of top quality home window substitute firms in the area, you’ll be sure to locate a firm who can do the job to a high standard and for an inexpensive cost. Ultimately, replacing your windows is a superb means to maintain your home heated as well as secure. What’s more, when you upgrade to top quality PVC home windows, you’ll quickly see the financial savings this creates, thanks to the enhanced power effectiveness.

On the whole, when you’re browsing for window replacement Tulsa is an area that won’t let you down. With an array of high quality window substitute companies in the area, you’ll be certain to discover a business who can do the task to a high specification and also for an economical price. What’s more, when you update to quality PVC windows, you’ll quickly discover the cost savings this produces, many thanks to the enhanced energy performance.

5 Things You Can Do To Prevent a House Fire

According to the National Fire Prevention Association, an average of eight people are killed every day due to house fires. Preventing a house fire is easy, and just five simple things can help minimize risk.

Pay Attention While Cooking

The NFPA reports that forty percent of home fires start in the kitchen. Most of these are caused by unattended food, though dirty cooking surfaces are another major cause. The best way to keep from starting a kitchen fire is to make sure that cooking surfaces–ovens, stovetops, and microwaves–are clean and attended at all times.

Heating and Electrical Maintenance

Fire debris analysis has shown that most fires in household heaters are caused by failure to clean, though portable heaters and wood stoves are also a major cause. Electrical fires are caused primarily by faulty wiring. Electrical appliances are also a contributing factor to electrical fires. It is best to do yearly check-ups on electrical and heating systems. Additionally, objects such as mattresses and clothing should never be left close to a space heater or wood stove, and electrical appliances should not be plugged in to questionable wall outlets.

Don’t Smoke Indoors

There are an average of 580 reported smoking-related fire deaths per year according to the NFPA. Most of these occur in the bedroom, with the living room as a close runner-up. Smoking should not be done in a place where one can easily fall asleep, thus dropping the cigarette and igniting clothes or furniture.

Watch Out For Candles

Candles may be useful for their scents, but they are still a fire hazard. There are an average of 29 fires started by candle reported daily, and most of these are started because of objects too close to the flame. Always be sure to keep candles away from flammable objects, and never leave them unattended.

Smoke Detectors

Smoke detectors are the best line of defense in the fight to prevent a house fire. These devices should have their batteries changed yearly in order to ensure that they stay in perfect operating condition. Timing this with an event such as a birthday or holiday should help make sure that the time to switch out batteries is not forgotten. Also, smoke detectors should never be removed or deactivated. The loud noise of a properly working smoke detector can alert you to a fire that is just beginning, or save lives in the event of a fire that has already started.

Home fire prevention is a subject to take seriously, and simple steps can ensure that risks are minimized. As the old saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure–especially when the consequences can be life and death.

Suggestions For Eco Friendly Home Improvements

You may think that looking after the environment is some sort of new fad, however it’s just really using your common sense. If you’re looking at different ways of improving your home to make it more appealing and comfortable it makes sense to try and save energy by reducing your energy consumption. The price of energy is ever increasing, so all of us have a reason to try and become green, so in this article we’ll be sharing some tips to help you with this.

Whilst considering what improvements you might make to your home, please take a few minutes to consider some important safety factors. Make sure that your home has a sensible number of WORKING smoke alarms fitted. If you are doing construction work within your home then why not take the opportunity to fit properly constructed fire doors on landings, kitchens etc.

Fire Doors

Modern fire doors, such as those pictured, are available in a wide variety of styles suitable for any home

Modern fire doors have many great designs including glazed and semi-glazed models but much more importantly they all give at least 30 minutes protection from fire and smoke, giving anybody inside the house sufficient time to escape to safety.

Even before it became trendy to be environmentally aware, most people knew that insulation was the key to keeping your home warm and energy efficient. That hasn’t changed, although now the rising cost of oil and electricity has made it even more urgent for us to pay attention to this. If your walls and ceiling aren’t well insulated, you can actually lose about half of your heat. Before you have installed insulation, make sure you know about the R value, which is the measurement of installation. You also have to pay attention to places where heat can escape and the cold can enter, such as gaps under doors. To prevent drafts, seal openings with draft excluders which can be made from almost any type of warm substance, old clothes can even be used! Although windows could be used for decoration and to give light in your house, they are also great for keeping the heat inside and for insulation. Actually, the kind of window you own can play a large part regarding the bills you have for heating your home. It is possible to make your home much more energy efficient by obtaining double or triple paned windows. You can also coat your windows with Low-E (low emissivity) coatings that can reduce heat loss by up to 50%. Consequently, while putting new energy efficient windows can be a high initial expense, it will help you to save money when all is said and done. And you will find the winters more tolerable.

Due to the increase in price of conventional power, lots of folks are researching alternative power sources, like solar heating and wind power. Making your home more energy efficient is a lot easier when using these natural and renewable energy sources. You can have a professional install solar panels or you can buy a kit and do it yourself. You can also use wind turbines to provide your home with power. If you’re serious about making your home greener and more energy efficient, you should seriously consider alternatives such as solar and wind power.

There are a vast number of methods for making your home more energy efficient and environmentally friendly. When you get into this mindset you will discover that thinking up of creative ways of being green is very easy. Not only are a majority of these methods good for helping the environment, they can also help you by saving money.

U.S. Approves First Genetically Engineered Apples

WASHINGTON, DC, February 13, 2015 (ENS) – The first genetically engineered apples were today approved for planting and sale in the United States by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The two approved apple varieties are genetically engineered to resist browning. They were developed by the Canadian company Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc. and will be marketed as the Arctic® Granny and Arctic® Golden.

apple label

Arctic apples will be labeled, but the labels with not state that they are genetically engineered. (Photo courtesy OSF)

The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, APHIS, said it is taking this action based on a final plant pest risk assessment that finds

the genetically engineered apples “are unlikely to pose a plant pest risk to agriculture and other plants in the United States.”

APHIS also completed an environmental assessment to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act. The assessment finds that deregulation of these apples “is not likely to have a significant impact on the human environment.”

Under the Plant Protection Act, APHIS is required to evaluate whether a new genetically modified plant, such as these apple varieties, are a plant pest risk to agricultural crops or other plants or plant products. If APHIS finds that a new GMO is unlikely to pose a plant pest risk, then under the law, the agency must deregulate the plant, allowing its sale and planting.

Neal Carter, president and founder of Okanagan Specialty Fruits, said this announcement is a monumental occasion for his team. “The commercial approval of Arctic apples, our company’s flagship product, is the biggest milestone yet for us, and we can’t wait until they’re available for consumers.”


British Columbia orchardist Neal Carter, president and founder of Okanagan Specialty Fruits, in his orchard. (Screengrab from video courtesy OSF)

Consumers will have to wait a little longer, though, since apple trees take several years to produce quantities of fruit.

“Our focus is working with growers to get trees in the ground. As more trees are planted and they come into commercial production, there will be a slow, but steady market introduction,” Carter explains, estimating Arctic apples will first be available in late 2016 in small, test-market quantities.

Here’s how it works. When you bruise, bite or slice an apple, rupturing its cell walls, a chemical reaction that turns the apple brown occurs between an enzyme in the apple known as polyphenol oxidase, PPO, and antioxidant compounds in the apple called phenolics.

Okanagan Specialty Fruits’ team turned down the expression of the apple PPO genes in a process called gene silencing, which utilizes low-PPO genes from other apples. In the end, Arctic apples produce too little PPO to brown.

The transformed Arctic apple plantlets are grafted onto rootstock and grow in a tree nursery until they are transplanted to an orchard, just as other commercial apple tree seedlings are propagated.

“No frankenfood here, folks,” says Carter, “just apples, now with suppressed PPO to stop enzymatic browning.”

Some consumers like the idea of non-browning apples. In October 2014, Okanagan Specialty Fruits issued the results of a mall intercept survey in which consumers shared their thoughts on the benefits of non-browning apples.

A cut Arctic apple can be refrigerated in a zip-lock type bag for several days without any noticeable browning, said 86 percent of respondents. Nonbrowning apples save consumers money, since these apples are eaten instead of being thrown away when they turn brown, said 85 percent. Freshcut Arctic apple slices won’t require treatment with lemon juice or chemicals to prevent them from browning, said 84 percent.

But not everyone likes the idea of genetically engineered apples, particularly if they are not labeled as such.

On Thursday, three Democrats – U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer of California, U.S. Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut and Congressman Peter DeFazio of Oregon – joined with Chef Tom Colicchio at a press event in the Capitol to introduce the Genetically Engineered Food Right-to-Know Act.


Democrats announce the introduction of the Genetically Engineered Food Right-to-Know Act. From left, Rep. Peter De Fazio, Sen. Barbara Boxer, Chef Tom Colicchio, Sen. Richard Blumenthal, Feb 12, 2015 (Photo courtesy Office of Senator Boxer)

The bill would require the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA, to clearly label genetically engineered foods so that consumers can make informed choices about what they eat.

“Consumers have a right to know what is in the foods they eat and parents have a right to know what they are feeding their families,” Senator Boxer said.

“As a consumer and dad, I want to know whether my family is eating food that has been altered artificially in genetics – and the American public wants and deserves to know as well,” Senator Blumenthal said.

“We cannot continue to keep Americans in the dark about the food they eat,” Congressman DeFazio said. “More than 60 other countries make it easy for consumers to choose. Why should the U.S. be any different? If food manufacturers stand by their product and the technology they use to make it, they should have no problem disclosing that information to consumers.”

“The public wants more information about the food they are buying and how it’s grown,” said Tom Colicchio, owner of Craft Restaurants and co-founder of Food Policy Action. “I applaud Senator Boxer and Representative DeFazio for their leadership, and urge their colleagues to join them, and stand up for the 93 percent of Americans who want to know if their food has been genetically modified.”

The FDA currently requires the labeling of over 3,000 ingredients, additives and processes, including labels for juices made “from concentrate,” but the agency has resisted labels for genetically modified foods since 1992, claiming that these foods were not “materially” different from other foods because the genetic differences could not be recognized by taste, smell or other senses.

The lawmakers and chef Colicchio object that the FDA’s labeling policy has not kept pace with 21st century food technologies that allow for a wide array of genetic and molecular changes to food that cannot be detected by human senses.


Apples for sale in Dupage, Illinois (Photo credit unknown)

According to surveys, more than 90 percent of Americans support the labeling of genetically engineered foods. In fact, many consumers are surprised to learn that genetically engineered foods are not already labeled.

On the other hand, Congressman Mike Pompeo, a Kansas Republican, last year introduced H.R. 4432, The Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act of 2014, dubbed by its critics the “DARK [Deny Americans the Right to Know] Act.” This bill would prohibit states from passing their own state-wide GMO labeling laws, and it would continue to allow GMOs to be labeled as “natural.”

This bill would make permanent the voluntary labeling system now in place and prevent the FDA from ever requiring GMO labeling in the future.

H.R. 4432 is backed by Monsanto, Dow Chemical, the Koch Brothers and food companies such as Pepsi. Since 2012, big food and chemical companies have poured more than $100 million into fighting GMO labeling initiatives in California, Washington, Oregon and Colorado.

Arctic apples will be labeled, but the labels will not say the fruit is genetically engineered.

The company states on its website, “An “Arctic” label provides real information because anyone who doesn’t already know how they differ from conventional apples can easily find out all the specific details they want. A “GMO” label, on the other hand, would be completely useless and fear inducing, just like all these mandatory labeling initiatives.”

Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc. is currently engaging in a voluntary food safety assessment consultation with the Food and Drug Administration regarding its Arctic® Apples.

Other nonbrowning Arctic varieties of fruits, such as peaches, are expected to follow. Carter says it will take “many years” before nonbrowning Arctic fruit is widely distributed.

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2015. All rights reserved.

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